Categories:

Aggregate Functions (Bitwise) , Window Functions , Bitwise Expression Functions

BITXOR_AGG

Returns the bitwise XOR value of all non-NULL numeric records in a group.

In each bit position, if an even number of rows have that bit set to 1, then the function returns 0 for that bit, and if an odd number of rows have that bit set to 1, then the function returns 1 for that bit.

If all records inside the group are NULL, or if the group is empty, the function returns NULL.

Aliases:

BITXORAGG , BIT_XOR_AGG, BIT_XORAGG

See also:

BITAND_AGG , BITOR_AGG

BITXOR

Syntax

BITXOR_AGG( [ DISTINCT ] <expr> )

Arguments

expr

The input expression must be an expression that can be evaluated to a number or converted to a number.

Returns

The data type of the returned value is NUMERIC(38, 0).

Usage Notes

  • Numeric values are aggregated to the nearest integer data type. Decimal and floating point values are rounded to the nearest integer before aggregation.

  • Aggregating a character/text column (data type VARCHAR, CHAR, STRING, etc.) implicitly casts the input values to FLOAT, then rounds the values to the nearest integer. If the cast is not possible, the value is treated as NULL.

Examples

Create the table and load the data:

CREATE OR REPLACE TABLE bitwise_example
        (k int, d decimal(10,5), s1 varchar(10), s2 varchar(10));

INSERT INTO bitwise_example VALUES
        (15, 1.1, '12','one'),
        (26, 2.9, '10','two'),
        (12, 7.1, '7.9','two'),
        (14, null, null,'null'),
        (8, null, null, 'null'),
        (null, 9.1, '14','nine');

Display the data:

SELECT k AS k_col, d AS d_col, s1, s2 FROM bitwise_example;
+-------+---------+------+------+
| K_COL |   D_COL | S1   | S2   |
|-------+---------+------+------|
|    15 | 1.10000 | 12   | one  |
|    26 | 2.90000 | 10   | two  |
|    12 | 7.10000 | 7.9  | two  |
|    14 |    NULL | NULL | null |
|     8 |    NULL | NULL | null |
|  NULL | 9.10000 | 14   | nine |
+-------+---------+------+------+

Query the data:

select bitxor_agg(k), bitxor_agg(d), bitxor_agg(s1) from bitwise_example;
+---------------+---------------+----------------+
| BITXOR_AGG(K) | BITXOR_AGG(D) | BITXOR_AGG(S1) |
|---------------+---------------+----------------|
|            31 |            12 |              0 |
+---------------+---------------+----------------+

Query the data and use a GROUP BY:

select s2, bitxor_agg(k), bitxor_agg(d) from bitwise_example group by s2;
+------+---------------+---------------+
| S2   | BITXOR_AGG(K) | BITXOR_AGG(D) |
|------+---------------+---------------|
| one  |            15 |             1 |
| two  |            22 |             4 |
| null |             6 |          NULL |
| nine |          NULL |             9 |
+------+---------------+---------------+

If you pass this function strings that can’t be converted to numbers, you’ll get an error:

select bitxor_agg(s2) from bitwise_example;
100038 (22018): Numeric value 'one' is not recognized